Do you use cellular phones, watch TV, listen to the radio, and use the computer? Little do you realize how and what comprises them to perform the tasks they are assigned to do. The most vital internal part of these devices is the printed circuit board assemblies.
Basically, the printed circuit board is made of a solid non-conductive base with pins or wires that are highly conductive. PCBs are also known as bare boards. The PCB functions for electronic transmissions necessary for gadgets, equipment and machine.
Looking back at the origin of the printed circuit board, it was invented by an Austrian engineer, Paul Eisler, in 1936. The PCB that he designed was for transistors or radio sets. However, in the 1940s, his design was stolen by a lithography company. Despite that, his invention was still patented to his name since it has other purposes. Consequently, the US military used the PCB, and the victory of the Americans in the Second World War is owed to this invention.
In the 1950s, through-hole technology PCB was invented. Designs of the PCBs became smaller in the 1970s. Surface-mount technology was invented, and became known in the 1980s. On goes the progress and smaller designs of the PCB with maintained level of efficacy came out. Further development of the PCBs went in the 1990s. Genesis 2000 software for DFM and PCB CAM was developed in 1992.
Multilayer boards were fabricated that resulted in further reduction of the PCB size. In 1995, High Density Interconnect or HDI was designed. Eventually, the “micro” type of PCBs was born. The Rigid-flex and Flex, affordable and easy to use, came out in the market in the 2000s.
As time passed, from a totally manual process, PCB assembly became less difficult with use of computer programs and high-tech machinery.
PCB assembly involves constraints under standardized processes. They are made in a clean venue to avoid contamination. Fabrication of the PCB is a complex process. First step is to identify the goals of the project. They must be time-bound, specific, measurable, realistic and attainable. Next, is to have a clear picture of the design. Visualize the end project. Identify the materials that will be needed. Consider the cost, availability and durability of materials. Following, the substrate is semi-cured, and then stacked in layers. Holes are made through drilling. Excess materials are removed from the edges of the holes. With the holes in place on the base or substrate, the printed circuit pattern is laid. Contact points are mounted to the edge of the base to connect with the printed circuit. Tin-lead pins are coated in hot oil bath to achieve a shiny surface. Thereafter, panels are sealed with epoxy to serve as protection of the circuits to avoid destruction while other parts are being mounted. Boards are then stenciled. Next, panels are cut into single boards, and ends are made smooth. These smoothed individual boards are placed in the machine for the electronic components to be mounted on the circuit. The electronic parts are soldered to the circuits. Then, the residue from the soldering process is removed.
A final quality assurance is performed by a group of quality inspectors. Each PCB assembly is closely inspected for flaws such as scratches and incongruence. Additionally, measurements of the holes are inspected with a probe to compare it with the main design. There are standardized regulations in PCB assembly. Finally, PCBs are packed individually in protective bags for transport or storage.
The PCB is a simple tool that makes our everyday living easy, despite the complex process that it goes through and the compound materials that make it up. Kudos to the inventors of the PCB!
The world of motorcycle clubs has always been associated with chaos and lawlessness. The majority of the general public looks down on motorcycle clubs, with some even referring to their members as “biker scum.” What most people fail to realize is that even in this seemingly violent environment, riders still do practice etiquette. Motorcycle club members put a high value on respect both for their fellow members and for other people outside the motorcycle community. In particular, parts of motorcycle club etiquette focus on biker patches, which are valued highly in the motorcycle subculture.
Biker patches basically represent determination. Similar to military patches, they frequently denote the status and rank of a club member. To be able to earn them, prospective members must first show active participation in their clubs. Bikers must also exemplify the ideals of their clubs through their actions, for it is their actions which reflect on all members of their club and influence the public’s opinion on motorcycle clubs in general. Once members have shown their loyalty and value to their clubs, they are allowed to wear the “colors”, a term used to refer to the patches managed by the club, and are not referred to as patch holders.
urally, earning these patches requires great passion, discipline, and determination. Therefore, patch holders are viewed by the motorcycle community as worthy of respect. A golden rule for bikers is that for one to become respected, one must first show respect to others. Disobeying etiquette, even unintentionally, is interpreted as a sign of disrespect and may in some cases lead to retaliation.
When talking about biker patch etiquette, the most important idea to note is that biker patches remain the property of the motorcycle club. Although riders are allowed to wear them to show their identity as motorcycle club members, they cannot claim their patches as their property. When they voluntarily leave the club or are dismissed for unacceptable behavior, they are usually required by club bylaws to surrender their patches. Failure to do so could result in legal action being taken against them.
In contrast, some motorcycle clubs allow members that have shown good conduct and have made positive contributions to keep their club patches, provided that they do not wear it in public, since wearing them implies that they are still active members of the club.
Aside from respect and loyalty, another concept that the biker community values is secrecy. Clubs are entitled to their own practices and activities, as long as they continue to abide by laws. These organizations consider having knowledge of their internal affairs as privileges, not rights. Such information includes the origin and meaning of the various designs imprinted on their biker patches. Therefore, it would be considered disrespectful for people, even bikers from different groups, to ask a motorcycle club member about such topics.
Bikers place a large emphasis on their patches, which serve as a symbol of their status. As a result, they typically do not allow non-members to touch them, even if by accident. When greeting bikers, it is customary to offer a handshake instead of hugging them. Also, one must first ask permission from the patch holders before taking pictures of their patches.
Additionally, there are people who, out of curiosity, try to infiltrate the motorcycle subculture. These individuals will wear outfits and patches similar to those used by other motorcycle clubs. Others, having more innocent intentions, simply wear patches as part of their attire, unaware that the patch designs might already be in use by some club members. Such attempts are seen as insults by legitimate club members. To avoid such scenarios, those who want to use a particular patch design must first coordinate and get approval from local motorcycle clubs.
Remember that the biker community has strict guidelines for the use of biker patches. Weird as they may sound, such rules prove that the motorcycle subculture has more sophistication than what most people give them credit for.
Custom or imprinted lanyards are typically used to promote brands and businesses. If you have just started your own business and you want people to know about it, ordering these accessories is a good idea. You can give them away as promotional items or let your employees wear them in order to promote brand recall. Then again, before you order these accessories, you should be aware of the important things that you have to consider.
See to it that you consider the material, color, width, printing method, and hardware attachment of the lanyard. The materials commonly used for lanyards are cord, cotton, polyester, and nylon. Leather, polyethylene terephthalate, and bamboo fiber are also sometimes used. You should choose the material depending on durability and cost. Since you need a lot of these accessories, it is ideal that you choose a material that is durable yet affordable.
With regard to the color and width, manufacturers usually allow their clients to decide. Hence, you can choose the color and width that you prefer. The standard widths are generally up to about twenty millimeters wide. Make sure that you specify the length that you prefer. The printing methods usually used on lanyards are screen printing, hot stamping, woven fabric print, and dye sublimation.
hardware attachments commonly used are bulldog and alligator clips, snap hooks and swivels, and O-rings or split rings. You should put emphasis on the cord of the lanyard. The most common materials used for lanyard cords are polyester and nylon. Although synthetic, these materials are durable and comfortable to wear. Cords also usually come with standard slide size adjustor beads.
When choosing a printing method, you should go for hot stamping if you intend to have simple logos or you only plan on using the lanyards for a short period of time, such as during conventions or meetings only. Hot stamping provides the fastest delivery and is a great choice for smaller quantities. It also provides excellent economical quality, and you can have the printing in a single color on one or both sides.
With screen printing, you can order more pieces. This method is actually the most cost effective when it comes to custom printing logo graphics and texts. Even though the available colors are limited, you can still have amazing results. You can choose from many color combinations. Screen printing provides great quality and allows printing to be in a single color on one or both sides.
If you prefer something that provides excellent quality for custom printing of complex logos, you can choose dye sublimation. This method is also ideal for larger orders. With dye sublimation, you can achieve superior quality graphics. You can also reproduce multicolor designs with intricate details on both sides. Nonetheless, if you want your texts or graphics to be woven into the fabric of the lanyard, you can choose woven fabric print. This method is ideal if your lanyard is going to be exposed to a robust environment.
When it comes to hardware attachments, you should consider the design and function of the lanyard. If you want to store keys on your lanyard, you can have it made with a custom keychain or key ring with a quick release. With regard to the artwork and designs, see to it that you choose designs that are related to your brand or business. They should also have the right size and color in order to attract the attention of people.
In order to efficiently promote your brand or business, include your contact details in the accessories. Finally, do not forget to consider the cord locks, adjuster beads, and breakaway safety features of the lanyards. Check for set-up and shipping charges as well. See to it that you also ask for the warranty of the items.
A lot is asked from keynote speakers. They are tasked to come up with a compelling message presenting the essence of the event they will be talking in. They are then required to present it in front of a large audience with the hopes that they will better understand the theme of the event and become motivated to process and accept the ideas to be presented. They must make speeches with which the audience can easily relate with. Finally, they must present their ideas under pressure, in an environment where many people will be observing every word they say and every movement they make.
In light of those facts, it should not be surprising that quite a lot of speakers have made errors in making and delivering their speeches. No one is perfect. Any keynote speaker can expect to make at least one error per speech. In order to avoid repeating the same mistakes, one should take note of any mistakes, even those from other speakers, and take steps to correct them.
Here are the most common mistakes and how to avoid them:
One should remember that the content of the speech is the most important aspect of any keynote address. As such, one should make sure that the speech contains just enough information to make the audience curious for more. There must be at least one clear idea present in the speech. It is better to focus on one idea and then place additional ideas which complement the main idea. This ensures that the speech has enough substance but is not crowded with irrelevant facts.
The purpose of an outline is to provide a structure with which to base the speech. Neglecting the outline might result in a disorganized speech which lacks unity and strength. By creating an outline, a keynote speaker can ensure that ideas are clearly conveyed to the audience in the proper sequence and fashion.
Creating the speech is not enough. One still has to consider the delivery of the speech. Besides, no matter how experienced someone is with public speaking, anyone can still benefit from some practice. Keynote speakers can practice their pronunciation, use of words, intonation, gestures, and more aspects of their speech. They can also spot weaknesses early and make steps to fix them. Furthermore, if speakers practice in front of groups of people, they can receive feedback which will help them improve.
Even if a speech is packed with the right amount of information, it becomes useless if it is presented in an uninteresting manner. One of the tasks of a keynote speaker is to generate interest, and there is no way a speaker can do that with a boring speech. It is up to the speaker to figure out how to capture the attention of the audience. Many decide to use humor in their speech. Others use rich media, like music and images, to increase audience impact. Some even sing or dance.
Adding variety to a keynote address is essential but should not be overdone. A keynote speaker must remember that it is the speech that really matters in the end. Everything that occurs onstage must contribute to the overall message of the speech. One should avoid mannerisms or other gestures which might be too distracting for the audience. One shoul
d also remember to reserve the fire breathing act for the circus, not the conference room.
Finally, it is important to present one’s best version when onstage. A good keynote speaker is one who is confident and shows strength. People will be more willing to be persuaded by someone who radiates the right amount of confidence. There are many ways to increase someone’s confidence, such as power poses or self-encouragement.
Knowing what to avoid when it comes to making a keynote address is critical in minimizing mistakes and making an excellent speech. By analyzing mistakes, any speaker can excel onstage and move people into action.
Vaping and the idea of creating your own e liquids are just some of the concepts that you have to know and understand about using electronic cigarettes. In this article, you will know more about the components of e juices and other fundamentals of vaping. This becomes especially important when you are planning to create your own mix of flavors for personal consumption.
The concept of vaping pertains to the inhalation of vapor from a PV or personal vaporizer.
This equipment is typically known as the e cig or the electronic cigarette. The terminology “smoking” does not really apply to this practice because one of the components of the flavoring does not technically produce smoke but only vapor in its wake. When PV is initially triggered through inhalation or pressing of a button, the battery is then connected to the atomizer or heating element of the device. This will then boil a small amount of e juice that will eventually lead to the production of vapor. You then have to inhale this byproduct.
Most types of e liquids are mainly composed of five main ingredients, regardless of the flavor.
This is in stark contrast to a regular cigarette. Typical cigarettes contain more than 4000 harmful chemicals that you can readily inhale in one go. While some e liquids may contain all of the following components, these may be reduced to just two main ingredients. It highly depends upon the flavor of the mixture that you are trying to create.
These are just other things that you have to know about e liquids and vaping. You have to keep in mind that the entire concept of vaping is about your enjoyment and your goal to significantly lower the levels of nicotine that you will be exposed to in the future. Also, you have to keep in mind that this practice is not equal to smoking.
You are probably sitting right now while you are reading this. Majority of us spend 6-8 hours at work sitting behind a desk unless we are always out there in the field or behind a treadmill desk. Most people live a sedentary lifestyle in that we spend most of our time sitting not only at work or in school but at home as well while watching television or while reading an interesting book. Often, we are too tired to stand and so we tend to seek the comfort of a chair when we are doing something.
Unfortunately, as much as we love to sit most of the time, sitting all day poses numerous health risks. Whether you are enrolled in a regular exercise program or you always go to the gym, sitting all day in the office can still cause some health problems. Here are some helpful information as to what sitting can do to your body.
1. Muscles: Sitting all day makes our glutes limp and soft especially when we do nothing. Our muscles need strong glutes as they provide support, strength, and stability as well as aid in the aging process. When we slump all day, we don?t get to use our abdominal muscles and as a result our abs become mushy and will not be able to support our back when it should thereby increasing the possibility of back pains. Abdominal muscles need to be strengthened by standing, sitting up straight and moving around. This is the reason why a treadmill desk is now being used in the office.
2. Organs: According to studies, sitting for prolonged periods can bring about a variety of cancers such as breast cancer, colon cancer, and cancer of the endocrine system. This is due to the excessive production of insulin in the body or the reduction of natural anti-oxidants because of sitting. The pancreas may become overactive and produce too much insulin causing diabetes and other diseases as the abdominal muscle cells cannot react to the insulin readily. The heart is also at risk because the cholesterol level is generally higher to those who live a sedentary lifestyle than those who are active.
3. Back and the Upper Body: When you stand and slowly walk on a treadmill desk while working in the office, you reduce the risk of hurting your back and the upper body. Siitting for long periods of time can cause disc damage as the entire body weight tends to rest on the ischial tuberosity or sitting bones. Herniated lumbar disks can be the result of this. Furthermore, sitting can result to a foggy brain as all the bodily functions tend to slowdown when we are at rest. When we constantly move or stand, blood is pumped and circulated to all the body parts thereby supplying fresh blood and oxygen to the body parts and causing the release of some good chemicals. When we sit for long hours, we also tend to crane our neck and tilt our head which can result to permanent imbalance or cervical vertebrae. Once the posture is not correct, the entire upper body is strained.
4. Lower Back: Sitting for too long too often can certainly result in swollen ankles and possible clotting of blood as the circulation is not that good when we remain seated for a long time.
The treadmill desk is now becoming very popular in the corporate world. Many people no longer want to remain sitting while they do their work because they believe that sitting can do them more harm than good in the long run. Plus, moving around or working while standing has been proven to increase workplace productivity.
You may have heard of the advantages of using a Windows VPS server for your office?s smooth work flow. The question now is if you fully understand what it is. Then again, there?s also the question if you also understood about having a server within a server.
If you are starting your own business and putting up your own office, this is especially prepared for you. Here, you will meet the different questions every non-techie person with to know regarding this VPS server or why a Windows VPS server is more preferred.
What is the difference between a server and a host?
The question above can be answered more clearly as we take a look at the internet. Most users who wish to include internet service in their company opt for servers. But servers are not hosts.
A host stores the website or the system you create. It transmits it to the internet so people from other parts of the world can access it by typing your domain name. You can say this is the intangible storage and transmitter. The tangible part is the server. This is the computer used to serve the website to the internet.
What is the difference between a VPS and a dedicated server?
Servers are great in managing the office documents, files and even software. However, not every office can use a dedicated server. This is where VPS comes in.
A VPS is used by smaller businesses to manage their work. Just like any dedicated server, it allows users to install their own software and use it as if it?s a physical computer on its own.
Windows VPS server is one of the most widely used VPS around. It means the server runs on Windows operating system. To create a VPS, a server is partitioned to several more servers. This allows each partition to function independently.
The dedicated server, on the other hand, provides full control of the server and not just a partition. Some companies opt for this and offer a lease on its VPS.
While their functions are the same, the difference is how users pay for these services and how they are presented.
Dedicated servers are computers housed in data centers. You need to buy the physical server and pay for maintenance and other cost that can help it to smoothly operate. It also uses power sources and HVAC systems. These are also owned by a provider who in some cases provides maintenance. If you have a big company and wish to use this, you can either opt for managed or unmanaged servers.
If you are running a smaller company, you can opt for virtual private servers or VPS. These servers are smaller and don?t require you to buy a unit to have it. It is similar to renting a space. You can only pay for the monthly usage of a VPS or its usage.
The VPS allows you to have the same function as a dedicated server ? allowing you to install your own software.
What makes Windows VPS servers highly used?
VPS providers opt for a Windows VPS server due to its cheaper price and quality performance. Other than this, it is easy to maintain. These VPS are supported by Windows operating system. It also promised the security in keeping files and other useful data. This means you can also use it for emailing needs. You don?t also have to worry about data copies since it automatically backs it up every three days.
In addition to a Windows VPS server, you can also use Linux VPS server. Select which server you can use, depending on your preference, the feature they present, and your office?s needs. These are a great help to prompting your office to smoother and faster work flow and progress.
If you?re a firearm owner who?s serious about gun safety, paying critical attention to how you store and hide your weapons is paramount. Some people would tell you that having big and pricey gun safes would be the best way to go about this, especially if you?re looking to add to the number of guns you currently own, but being economical isn?t such a bad idea either, just as long as you know the tricks on how to make your money stretch as far as it could when it comes to securing your guns and other precious belongings.
Safes that put a high premium on anti-burglary, anti-fire, anti-cracking, and even anti-flooding features are usually commercial-grade. In other words they?re meant for businesses more than residential use. Seeing as they are more expensive than the average residential safe, people who run their own businesses are usually the only ones who could afford them. You could own one too; that is if you are enterprising and doesn?t mind getting it secondhand.
If you know of a business in your area that?s closing or moving to another location, see if they?re willing to part with their commercial grade safe. It?ll be a lot cheaper than buying a brand new one, plus the quality is still pretty much what it had been when it was still new. This is especially true if the safe has a mechanical rotary dial lock?the best of those could last for decades.
If that is not an option for you and you are set to buy gun safes intended for home use, consider the following:
Gun safes that weigh around seven hundred pounds can be heavy enough to make burglars think twice about moving them around, but light enough that they can be purchased and installed without needing extra outsider hands.
Most low-end safes, and even some high-end ones, use thinner metal sheets for the top, back, and sides. If possible, you should put such safes in a place where most of their vulnerable parts could be protected. For example, a nook or niche in the wall or in the corner of a room where at least two of the weaker sides would be inaccessible is some of the best places where you can install a safe.
Consider bolting your gun safe into place if you?re not confident that its weight alone will be enough to deter burglars. Anchor it to the floor (preferably concrete) using multiple heavy duty studs.
Do not advertise that you have a gun safe full of firearms by placing it anywhere it could be easily seen, like the garage or the living room. If possible, hide it behind other furniture or install it in a false wall. Then, have a cheaper decoy gun safe with defective, or fake, firearms inside. In case of a burglary, that?s what would likely be taken.
Make sure to store ammunition in the real safe, preferably within another, smaller safe. Better yet, keep most of it in a separate safe that?s as equally well hidden as the gun safe.
Look for continuous welds in a safe. Those with stitch welds are suspect when it comes to strength and endurance under pressure.
Look out for door bolts, at least two on each of the four sides?made from hardened steel. Gun safes with trusty bolts and a reliable relocking mechanism is a must have for anyone. In the event that a lock or external hinge is tinkered with and breached, the relockers would spring and keep the door sealed shut, making it almost impossible to pry with a bar.
There are lots of other ways you can work around the disadvantages of the gun safe you own or are planning on purchasing. You simply have to be committed to ensuring maximum safety for you, your loved ones, and the community at large.
At some point, fad diets can be difficult to follow because of the strict food restrictions and recommendations that should be followed. Correct planning is essential in following a fad diet. It is important that the guidelines, tips and recommendations in a fad diet is well understood to prepare the right food items.
Alkaline foods are the recommended type food items in the alkaline diet. The alkaline diet suggests that there are food items that can increase or decrease the pH level of the blood depending on the type of ash produced by the food after metabolism. The diet suggest that alkaline foods can increase the pH level of the blood and since the blood is slightly alkaline, foods that should be consumed are foods that will maintain acceptable alkaline levels in the blood. Acidic foods are to be avoided because these can lower the pH level of the blood, but small amounts can still be consumed to balance out very high alkaline foods. A very high alkaline level of the blood can also be detrimental to the health.
Examples of alkaline foods are most of the vegetables and fruits while animal sources, fats, and sugary foods are examples of acidic food items. Protein sources of the alkaline diet would be from non-animal products such as tofu and certain nuts such as almonds and chestnuts. The pH level of the food items before metabolism is not the same as the pH level of the ash it produce. There are food items that are organically acidic but are classified under alkaline foods. Examples of these food items are citrus fruits. Lemons and oranges are acidic but they are believed to increase the pH of the blood.
Consuming only fruits and vegetables can be difficult if you do not have a lot of ideas on different preparations that can be done with these food items. Different types of fresh fruit and vegetable salads can be prepared. Cooking methods that should be avoided are those that will entail additional food items like in frying, which needs oil. Food items can be broiled, oven cooked, boiled, or steamed to prevent the use of additional unnecessary ingredients. Spices can also be added for additional flavour because most of the spices are alkaline foods.
Examples of recipes that can be prepared for the alkaline diet are mashed potatoes with steamed vegetables, tofu salad, and baked vegetable casserole.
For the mashed potatoes, the ingredients needed are potatoes, garlic, soy milk, salt, ground black pepper and parsley. The first step to be done is to peel the potatoes and boil them with several cloves of garlic. Boil the potatoes until the potatoes are soft. Remove the potatoes and mash them using a masher or a fork. Mash the potatoes with the garlic. Add and mix the milk, salt and pepper to the mashed potatoes. Mashed potatoes can be served with steamed mixture of broccoli, carrots, and chayote.
For the tofu salad, the ingredients needed are tofu, iceberg lettuce, carrots, tomatoes, almonds, balsamic vinegar, salt and pepper. First step to be done is to steam the tofu. After the tofu is cooked, slice them into small cubes. Tear up the iceberg lettuce. Slice the carrots and tomatoes into bite size pieces. Slice almonds in half. Add salt and pepper to balsamic vinegar. Toss all the ingredients together.
For the baked vegetable casserole, the ingredients needed are sweet potatoes, red bell peppers, green bell peppers, carrots, tomatoes, olive oil, salt and black pepper. Slice all the vegetables into 2-inch pieces. Place all ingredients on a casserole dish, mix and bake.
There are different ways to prepare different meals. Having a broader knowledge of different food preparations will help anyone in following strict diets like the alkaline diet.
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